Publication Type:

Journal Article


Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic GeologistsEconomic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, Economic Geology Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA, United States, Volume 113, Number 2, p.397-420 (2018)




Algoma District Ontario, alteration, Archean, Canada, deformation, eastern canada, fabric, Fluid inclusions, folds, foliation, geochemistry, gold ores, history, inclusions, intrusions, isoclinal folds, lithogeochemistry, major elements, mass balance, metal ores, metamorphism, microthermometry, mineral assemblages, mineral deposits, genesis, mineralization, Ontario, ore bodies, ore-forming fluids, orogeny, outcrops, Precambrian, production, prograde metamorphism, proterozoic, quartz veins, retrograde metamorphism, three-dimensional models, Trace elements, upper Precambrian, veins, water-rock interaction, Wawa Ontario, whole rock


Orebodies in the Missanabie-Renabie gold district (Archean Wawa subprovince, Ontario, Canada) are controversial in their genetic affiliation and have been considered both intrusion related and orogenic. The orebodies are hybrids composed of pre-orogenic, syn-orogenic, and late syn- to post-orogenic veins that spatially overlap within 2720.8 + or - 1.4 Ma biotite tonalite of the Missinaibi Lake batholith. Gold-bearing, pre-orogenic laminated quartz veins with quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration halos (the Au (sub 1) hydrothermal event) account for the majority of gold endowment and are overprinted by (1) syn-orogenic, gold-barren quartz + or - epidote + or - chlorite + or - K-feldspar + or - hematite veins and breccias associated with hematite-bearing alteration zones (the Retrograde hydrothermal event) and (2) late syn- to post-orogenic, gold-bearing pyrite veins (the Au (sub 2) hydrothermal event). These hydrothermal events are characterized by integrating field-based constraints with petrographic and scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive spectroscopy imaging/analysis, lithogeochemistry and mass balance, and fluid inclusion studies including microthermometry and evaporate mound analysis. The results illustrate that the Au (sub 1) event relates to the unmixing of pyrite-stable, H (sub 2) O-CO (sub 2) (XCO (sub 2) 0.13-0.17; 3.7-8.0 wt % NaCl equiv), Au-Ag-Bi-Cu- Mo-Pb-Te-W-Zn-S-large ion lithophile element-bearing fluid. The Retrograde event reflects a pyrite-stable, Na-S-(+ or - Ag, Bi, Te, W)-bearing H (sub 2) O fluid ( approximately 5-10 wt % NaCl equiv) that evolved to a hematite-stable, more saline (up to approximately 23 wt % NaCl + CaCl (sub 2) equiv), Ca-K-enriched fluid in response to alteration-associated fluid-rock interaction. A lack of identifiable alteration and fluid inclusions associated with Au (sub 2) veins precludes constraints on the fluid chemistry of the Au (sub 2) event. Relationships among prograde metamorphic minerals, Au (sub 1) phases, and Retrograde phases indicate a pre-prograde metamorphic timing for the Au (sub 1) event and a post-peak metamorphic timing for the Retrograde and Au (sub 2) events. These contrasting fluid chemistries, alteration characteristics, and metamorphic timing relationships imply that the different hydrothermal events have divergent genetic histories. The chronology of the hydrothermal events with respect to deformation and metamorphism suggests that the intrusion-hosted, pre-orogenic, gold-bearing veins that formed across the Wawa gold camp during the Au (sub 1) event are genetically related to potassium-poor granitoid intrusions. These pre-orogenic veins were overprinted by syn-orogenic veins during the Retrograde and Au (sub 2) events as the intrusion-related/orogenic hybrid orebodies that characterize the Wawa gold camp formed.


GeoRef, Copyright 2018, American Geological Institute.<br/>2018-039792<br/>Missanabie-Renabie mining district<br/>Missinaibi Lake Batholith